Established on April 10, 2009 Arakan Army led by Arakan’s younger generations, has become one of the most credibility army forces in Burma fighting for self-determination, national equality, justice and freedom. In solidarity with all ethnic people who have been struggling in Burma and with the Arakanese around the globe in particular, we pursue our mission with excellence, compassion and modesty to protect our fatherland. Profoundly guided by inspirations of our faith, value, legacy and true vision that unite us as a people—we are committed to meet the tests of history; it defines our destiny. The land of Arakan belongs to the people of Arakan. To protect our ancestral land is the price of our freedom. No one should be denied the right to determine their own destiny, to be free of oppression—because freedom of expression is universal aspiration of humanity.

Our mission is as follows:

Like perseverance that constitutes our core competence we the Arakan army keep our feet firmly on the ground while steadfastly pursuing our vision as a global cooperation to build a future worthy of our pledge and sacrifice. From glorious achievement of past rises our aspiration for global future: aspiration backed by our spirit, creativity, optimism and determination to work as a family and team to safeguard to the fatherland. For inspiration, we look to our brave Arakanese especially for those who are scarifying their lives in defense of the fatherland whose noble service reminds us of our mission as a nation—to build a future worthy of their sacrifice.

Lives of great Arakanese heroes who once glorified our ancestral land remind us that we can make our lives sublime and meaningful departing behind us footprints on the sands of time. These great Arakanese heroes were courageously and prominently defending to our country’s legacy of freedom and values we always cherish. The life of each and every one of them is precious to our nation. And each life given in the name of liberty is a life that has not been lost in vain but in honor the good souls whose memories are a blessing to path of our liberation.

History has witnessed to the characters of the people of Arakan who have shown strong and steadfast spirit what kinds of Arakanese are at toughness time. They have been partners in great enterprise sharing foremost responsibilities in protecting Arakan’s legacy of freedom. Throughout history, the brave Arakanese heroes have served our ancestral land and with selfless dedication and greater determination. They were standing firm against our enemies and those who sought to destroy our way of life and crushed our ideals as well as our heritages. We are sure that we all Arakanese agree that we owe a great debt of gratitude to those who sacrificed their lives so that we can enjoy the freedom.

Unity is the priority of priorities to Arakanese. Our greatest responsibility today is to prove our courage of unity refusing to live under the brutal and repressive dictatorship that had been destroyed lives and resources of our land. It’s our nation’s right to live in freedom, democracy and a good decent life. We the Arakan Army decisively hold the vision on uniting path of freedom and–we will pay price for the best of tomorrows.

The Arakan army firmly believed that we have the will and wisdom to apply ourselves in exciting tests of rebuilding our society and prosperous future . We must have the courage to celebrate the victory a day. The Arakan Army invites all Arakanese to join in our national struggle to accomplish our long desired mission we are in; to bind up nation’s wounds; to make the promise of our founding fathers come true.



The Myanmar National Democratic Alliance Army (MNDAA)[n 1] is an armed resisance group in the Kokang region, Myanmar (Burma). The army has existed since 1989, having been the first one to sign a ceasefire agreement with the Burmese government. The ceasefire lasted for about two decades.[4][5]


The group was formed on 12 March 1989, after the local Communist Party of Burma leader, Pheung Kya-shin (also spelt Peng Jia Sheng or Phone Kyar Shin), dissatisfied with the communist government, broke away and formed the MNDAA.[6] Along with his brother, Peng Jiafu, they became the new unit in Kokang.[7] The strength of the army is between 1,500 and 2,000 men.[7] The rebels soon became the first group to agree to a ceasefire with the government troops. Thus the Burmese government refers to the Kokang region controlled by the MNDAA as "Shan State Special Region 1", indicating the MNDAA was the first group in the area of Shan State to sign a ceasefire agreement.[6] After the ceasefire, the area underwent an economic boom, with both the MNDAA and regional Myanmar Armed Forces (Tatmadaw) troops profiting from increased opium harvests and heroin-refining.[8] The area also produces methamphetamine.[9] The MNDAA and other paramilitary groups control the cultivation areas, making them an easy target for drug trafficking and organised crime groups.[9] The Peace Myanmar Group allegedly launders and reinvests MNDAA's drug profits into the legal economy.[10]

2009 Kokang conflict

n August 2009, the Myanmar National Democratic Alliance Army became involved in a violent conflict with the Myanmar Armed Forces. This was the largest outbreak of fighting between ethnic armies and government troops since the signing of the ceasefire 20 years earlier.[11] As a result of the conflict, the MNDAA lost control of the Kokang Self-Administered Zone, and as many as 30,000 refugees fled to Yunnan province in neighbouring China.[12]

2015 offensive

On 9 February 2015 the MNDAA tried to retake the area, clashing with Burmese government forces in Laukkai. The skirmishes left a total of 47 Government soldiers dead and 73 wounded. After several months of intense conflict, Kokang insurgents had failed to capture Laukkai. Following the incident, the government of China was accused of giving military assistance to the ethnic Kokang soldiers.[13]

2017 clashes

On 6 March 2017, MNDAA insurgents attacked police and military posts in Laukkai, resulting in the deaths of 30 people.[14][15]

2021 post-coup resistance

Clashes with the Tatmadaw resumed after the military coup, with MNDAA alongside its allies, AA and Ta'ang National Liberation Army, attacking a police station south of Lashio, killing at least 14 police officers and burning the station to the ground.[16] MNDAA and TNLA further launched attacks in multiple locations in Northern Shan State on 4 and 5 May 2021, inflicting heavy casualties on the Myanmar military.[17]


The Ta'ang National Liberation Army (Burmese: တအောင်း အမျိုးသား လွတ်မြောက်ရေး တပ်မတော်; abbreviated TNLA) in Myanmar (Burma), is the armed wing of the Palaung State Liberation Front (PSLF). The TNLA is known for their opposition to drug trade, conducting operations where they actively destroy poppy fields, heroin refineries and meth labs.[7][8][9][10][11] The TNLA claims that they arrest opium smugglers regularly and the narcotics seized are publicly burned on special occasions to deter drug trade.[6]


The TNLA was originally founded as the Palaung State Liberation Organization/Army (PSLO/A), which signed a ceasefire agreement with the government in 1991 and disarmed in 2005. After the dissolution of the PSLO/A, Ta'ang (Palaung) leaders Tar Aik Bong and Tar Bone Kyaw founded the TNLA alongside the PSLF to continue fighting for the self-determination of the Ta'ang people. The TNLA is presently allied with the Kachin Independence Army and the Shan State Army - North, and have been conducting operations alongside them in northern Shan State.[2] Following the 2010 general election and constitutional reforms in 2011, the government created the Pa Laung Self-Administered Zone in northern Shan State as a special self-administration zone for the Ta'ang people. The region is one of the most underdeveloped in the country, with few schools and hospitals. Clashes with Tatmadaw resumed after the military coup, with TNLA alongside its allies, AA and MNDAA, attacking a police station south of Lashio, killing at least 14 police officers and burning the station to the ground.[12] TNLA and MNDAA further launched attacks in multiple locations in Northern Shan State on 4 and 5 May 2021, inflicting heavy casualties on the Myanmar military.[13] Combined forces of TNLA and SSPP clashed with RCSS in March and April 2021, injuring several civilians and displacing thousands.[14][15] Tar Bone Kyaw, the second-in-command of TNLA, voiced his support for the National Unity Government formed in opposition to the military junta.[16]


On October 17, 2020, TNLA abducted a local woman from Mogok and demanded 60 millions of kyats and beaten until ransoms were payoff.[17][18] On December 5, 2020, also in Mogok, another local man was also abducted by TNLA.